Clean Energy and Transportation
As a small, resource-constrained country, Singapore imports almost all its fuel and electricity and has limited renewable energy options. They include:
Wind: Commercial wind turbines operate at wind speeds of around above 4.5m/s but the average wind speed in Singapore is only about 2m/s.
Tidal: Singapore's relatively narrow tidal range and calm seas limit opportunities for commercial tidal power generation. Much of our sea space is also used for ports, anchorage and shipping lanes, which limit the application of ocean energy technologies.
Hydroelectric: hydroelectric power cannot be harnessed, as Singapore does not have a river system with regular fast-flowing water.
Biogas: our small physical size (715.8 sq km), high population density and land scarcity limits our potential for sustainably-grown domestic biomass.
Nuclear: our small physical size (715.8 sq km) constraints the safe deployment of nuclear power in Singapore.